International Cyber Security Bibliography

A regularly updated and easily searchable bibliography on international cyber security-related publications.

This bibliography was originally compiled by Liisi Adamson and is maintained by The Hague Program on International Cyber Security - please send any additions or suggestions to info@thehagueprogram.nl

NB: Underlined items link directly to the referred article or book.

The Hague Program on International Cyber Security

International Cyber Security Bibliography PDF Download

Adamson, L. & Homburger Z.

2019

"Let Them Roar: Small States as Cyber Norm Entrepreneurs", European Foreign Affairs Review, 24 (2): 217-234.

Arquilla, J.

2021

Bitskrieg: The New Challenge of Cyberwarfare, Wiley.

Ashton-Hart, N.

2015

"Solving the International Internet Policy Coordination Problem", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 12 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Austin, G.

2016

"International Legal Norms in Cyberspace: Evolution of China’s National Security Motivations", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 171-201.

Backman, S.

2020

"Conceptualizing cyber crises", Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management.

Baker-Beall, C. & Mott, G.

2021

Bannelier-Christakis, K.

2019

"Due Diligence: a Strategic Norm of Responsible Behaviour for the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox?", Inaugural meeting of the European Cyber Diplomacy Dialogue, EU Cyber Direct, January 2019.

Barrinha, A. & Renard, T.

2020

"Power and diplomacy in the post-liberal cyberspace", International Affairs, 96 (3): 749-766.

Barton, A.M.

2000

"Norm Origin and Development in Cyberspace: Models of Cybernorm Evolution", Washington University Law Quarterly, 78 (1): 59-111.

Baseley-Walker, B.

2011

"Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Cyberspace: Towards Norms of Behaviour", in Vignard, K., McCrae, R. & Powers, J. (eds.), Disarmament Forum: Confronting Cyberconflict, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2011 (4): 31-40.

Bellovin, S.M., Landau, S. & Lin, H.S.

2017

Biller, J.T. & Schmitt, M.N.

2019

Boeke, S. & Broeders, D.

2018

"The Demilitarisation of Cyber Conflict", Survival, 60 (6): 73-90.

Boer, L.

2021

International Law As We Know It: Cyberwar Discourse and the Construction of Knowledge in International Legal Scholarship, Cambridge University Press.

Borghard, E.D. & Lonergan, S.W.

2019

"Cyber Operations as Imperfect Tools of Escalation", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 13 (3): 122-145.

Boyko, S.

2016

"UN Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security", International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy, and International Relations, 62 (5).

Branch, J.

2020

"What's in a Name? Metaphors and Cybersecurity", International Organization, 1-32.

Brantly, A.F.

2020

"Entanglement in Cyberspace: Minding the Deterrence Gap", Democracy and Security, 16 (3): 210-233.

Broeders, D.

2016

Broeders, D., Adamson, L. & Creemers, R.

2019

A coalition of the unwilling? Chinese and Russian perspectives on cyberspace, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, November 2019.

Broeders, D., Boeke, S. & Georgieva, I.

2019

Foreign intelligence in the digital age. Navigating a state of 'unpeace', The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, September 2019.

Broeders, D., De Busser, E. & Pawlak, P.

2020

Three tales of attribution in cyberspace: Criminal law, international law and policy debates, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, April 2020.

Brown, G. & Poellet, K.

2012

"The Customary International Law of Cyberspace", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (3): 126-145.

Buchan, R.

2019

"Taking Care of Business: Industrial Espionage and International Law", The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 26 (1): 143-160.

Buchanan, B. & Cunningham, F.S.

2020

Buchanan, B. & Imbrie, A.

2022

The New Fire: War, Peace, and Democracy in the Age of AI, The MIT Press.

Burton, J.

2018

"Cyber Security Norms in the Euro-Atlantic Region: NATO and the EU as Norm Entrepreneurs and Norm Diffusers", in Gruszczak, A. & Frankowski, P. (eds.), Technology, Ethics and the Protocols of Modern War, London: Routledge.

Burton, J. & Christou, G.

2021

Bridging the gap between cyberwar and cyberpeace”, International Affairs, 97 (6): 1727-1747.

Butler, R.J. & Lachow, I.

2012

"Multilateral Approaches for Improving Global Security in Cyberspace", Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 5-14.

CCDCOE Law Branch Researchers, Kadri Kaska (ed.)

2019

"Trends in International Law for Cyberspace", NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE), May 2019.

Centre for International Governance Innovation & Royal Institute of International Affairs

2016

A Universal Internet in a Bordered World: Research on Fragmentation, Openness and Interoperability (Research Volume One), Global Commission on Internet Governance, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Chantzos, I. & Alam, S.

2016

"Technological Integrity and the Role of Industry in Emerging Cyber Norms", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 203-220.

Charney, S., English, E., Kleiner, A., Malisevic, N., McKay, A., Neutze, J., & Nicholas, P.

2016

Chertoff, M. & Rosenzweig, P.

2015

"A Primer on Globally Harmonizing Internet Jurisdiction and Regulations", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 10 – March, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Choucri, N.

2013

"Co-Evolution of Cyberspace and International Relations: New Challenges for the Social Sciences", Prepared for World Social Science Forum (WSSF) 2013 Montreal, Canada, Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Christou, G.

2016

Cybersecurity in the European Union: Resilience and Adaptability in Governance Policy, Palgrave Macmillan.

Christou, G.

2019

"The Collective Securitisation of Cyberspace in the European Union", West European Politics, 42 (2): 278-301.

Christou, G.

2018

"The Challenges of Cybercrime in the European Union", European Politics and Society, 19 (3): 355-375.

Clarke, R.A.

2012

Claussen, K.

2018

"Beyond Norms: Using International Economic Tools to Deter Malicious State-Sponsored Cyber Activities", Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, 32 (2): 113-125. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3395176).

Corn, G. & Jensen, E.T.

2018

"The Use of Force and Cyber Countermeasures", Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, 32 (2): 127-133. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3190253).

Crandall, M. & Allan, C.

2015

"Small States and Big Ideas: Estonia’s Battle for Cybersecurity Norms", Contemporary Security Policy, 36 (2): 346-368.

Cristiano, F.

2020

"Israel: Cyber Warfare and Security as National Trademarks of International Legitimacy", in Romaniuk, S.N. & Manjikian, M. (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3698972).

Cristiano, F.

2020

"Palestine: Whose Cyber Security without Cyber Sovereignty?", in Romaniuk, S.N. & Manjikian, M. (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3700850).

Cristiano, F.

2018

"From Simulations to Simulacra of War: Game Scenarios in Cyberwar Exercises", Journal of War & Culture Studies, 11 (1): 22-37.

Cunningham, F.S.

2022

Davis, II, J.S., Boudreaux, B., Welburn, J.W., Aguirre, J., Ogletree, C., McGovern, G., & Chase, M.S.

2017

Stateless Attribution: Toward International Accountability in Cyberspace. Research Reports. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Davis, J.A. & Lewis, C.

2019

"Beyond the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts", The Cyber Defense Review: 161-168.

Delerue, F.

2020

Cyber Operations and International Law, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 146.

Delerue, F.

2021

"Covid-19 and the Cyber Pandemic: A Plea for International Law and the Rule of Sovereignty in Cyberspace", in: Jančárková, T., Lindström, L., Visky, G. & Zotz, P. (eds.), 2021 13th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Going Viral, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Dellago, M., Woods, D. & Simpson, A.

2022

"Exploit Brokers and Offensive Cyber Operations", The Cyber Defense Review 7 (3): 31-47.

Devanny, J., Martin, C. & Stevens, T.

2021

Douzet, F., Limonier, K., Mihoubi, S., & René, E.

2021

Dunn Cavelty, M. & Wenger, A.

2020

Dunn Cavelty, M. & Wenger, A. (eds.)

2022

Cyber Security Politics: Socio-Technical Transformations and Political Fragmentation, Routledge.

Dwyer, A. & Ertan, A.

2022

"Introduction: An Offensive Future?", The Cyber Defense Review 7 (3): 9-13.

Dwyer, A. & Silomon, J.

2019

"Dangerous Gaming: Cyber-Attacks, Air-Strikes and Twitter", E-International Relations, 23 September 2019.

Easterbrook, F.H.

1996

"Cyberspace and the Law of the Horse", University of Chicago Legal Forum, Vol. 1996, Article 7.

Eggenschwiler, J.

2019

Egloff, F. J. & Dunn Cavelty, M.

2021

Egloff, F.J.

2020

"Public attribution of cyber intrusions", Journal of Cybersecurity, 6 (1).

Egloff, F.J.

2019

Egloff, F.J.

2022

Semi-State Actors in Cybersecurity, Oxford University Press.

Egloff, F.J. & Shires, J.

2022

Egloff, F.J. & Smeets, M.

2021

"Publicly attributing cyber attacks: a framework", Journal of Strategic Studies.

Eichensehr, K.

2020

Eichensehr, K.

2022

"Not Illegal: The SolarWinds Incident and International Law", European Journal of International Law.

Eichensehr, K.E.

2015

"The Cyber-Law of Nations", The Georgetown Law Journal, 103 (2): 317-380.

Eldem, T.

2019

Elliott, D.

2009

"Weighing the Case For a Convention to Limit Cyberwarfare", Arms Control Today, 39 (9): 21-27.

Erskine, T. & Carr, M.

2016

"Beyond ‘Quasi-Norms’: The Challenges and Potential of Engaging with Norms in Cyberspace", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 87-109.

Fairbank, N.A.

2019

Farrell, H.

2015

"Promoting Norms for Cyberspace", Cyber Brief, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.

Finnemore, M.

2017

"Cybersecurity and the Concept of Norms", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 30 November 2017.

Finnemore, M.

2011

"Cultivating International Cyber Norms", in Lord, K.M. & Sharp, T (eds.), America’s Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age, Washington D.C.: Center for a New American Security, 87-102.

Finnemore, M. & Hollis, D.

2016

"Constructing Norms for Global Cybersecurity", American Journal of International Law, 110 (3): 425-479.

Finnemore, M. & Hollis, D.B.

2019

"Beyond Naming and Shaming: Accusations and International Law in Cybersecurity". Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2019-14. (Available at SSRN: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3347958).

Flonk, D.

2021

Forsyth, J.W.

2013

Forsyth, J.W. & Pope, B.E.

2014

Gechlik, M.

2017

"Appropriate Norms of State Behavior in Cyberspace: Governance in China and Opportunities for US Businesses", Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Series Paper No. 1706, 28 July 2017.

Geier, K.

2016

"Norms, Confidence and Capacity Building: Putting the UN Recommendations on Information and Communication Technologies in the Context of International Security Into OSCE-Action", European Cybersecurity Journal, 2 (1).

Georgieva, I.

2019

Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2010

Gioe, D.V., Goodman, V.S., & Stevens, T.

2020

"Intelligence in the Cyber Era: Evolution or Revolution?", Political Science Quarterly, 135 (2): 191-224.

Glennon, M.J.

2013

"The Dark Future of International Cybersecurity Regulation", Journal of National Security Law & Policy, 6 (2): 563-570.

Goldfarb, A. & Lindsay, J.R.

2022

Goldman, E.O.

2020

"From Reaction to Action: Adopting a Competitive Posture in Cyber Diplomacy", Texas National Security Review, special issue on Cyber Competition.

Goldschmidt, C., Dark, M.J. & Chaudhry, H.

2010

"Responsibility for the Harm and Risk of Software Security Flaws", in Dark, M.J. (ed.), Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Hershey PA: IGI Global, 104-131.

Goldsmith, J.

2011

"Cybersecurity Treaties: A Skeptical View", in Berkowitz, P. (ed.), Future Challenges in National Security and Law, Hoover Institution Press.

Grauman, B.

2012

Greenberg, A.

2019

Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers. Doubleday.

Grigsby, A.

2017

"The End of Cyber Norms", Survival, 59 (6): 109-122.

Hamman, S.T., Mewhirter, J., Harknett, R.J., Vićić, J., & White, P.

2020

"Deciphering Cyber Operations", The Cyber Defense Review, 5 (1): 135-152.

Hampson, F.O. & Sulmeyer, M. (eds.)

2017

Harknett, R.J. & Smeets, M

2020

"Cyber campaigns and strategic outcomes", Journal of Strategic Studies.

Hassib, B. & Shires, J.

2021

Healey, J.

2019

Healey, J. & Pitts, H.

2012

"Applying International Environmental Legal Norms to Cyber Statecraft", I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society, 8 (2): 356- 387.

Heintschel von Heinegg, W.

2015

Henschke, A., Sussex, M. & O'Connor, C.

2020

Hoffman, S., Lazanski, D. & Taylor, E.

2020

Holland, H.B.

2005

"The Failure of the Rule of Law in Cyberspace?: Reorienting the Normative Debate on Borders and Territorial Sovereignty", The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law, 24 (1): 1-34.

Hollis, D.

2017

"China and the US Strategic Construction of Cybernorms: The Process is the Product", Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Paper Series No. 1704, 7 July 2017.

Homburger, Z.

2019

Hughes, R.

2009

"Towards a Global Regime for Cyber Warfare", in Czosseck, C. & Geers, K. (eds.), The Virtual Battlefield: Perspectives on Cyber Warfare, Conference proceedings - Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCD CoE) Conference on Cyber Warfare (June 2009, Tallinn, Estonia).

Hughes, R.

2010

"A Treaty for Cyberspace", International Affairs, 86 (2): 523-541.

Hurel, L.M. & Lobato, L.C.

2018

"Unpacking Cyber Norms: Private Companies as Norm Entrepreneurs", Journal of Cyber Policy, 3 (1): 61-76.

Hurwitz, R.

2015

A Call to Cyber Norms: Discussions at the Harvard-MIT-University of Toronto Cyber Norms Workshops, 2011 and 2012, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Hurwitz, R.

2013

"A New Normal? The Cultivation of Global Norms as Part of a Cybersecurity Strategy", in Yannakogeorgos, P.A. & Lowther, A.B. (eds.), Conflict and Cooperation In Cyberspace, The Challenge to National Security, Taylor & Francis.

Hurwitz, R.

2014

"The Play of States: Norms and Security in Cyberspace", American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, 36 (5): 322-331.

Hurwitz, R.

2012

"Depleted Trust in the Cyber Commons", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (3): 20-45.

Inglis, J.C.

2020

"Shining a Light on Cyber: An Interview with John C. 'Chris' Inglis", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 14 (3): 3-11.

International Security Advisory Board (ISAB)

2014

International Telecommunications Union

2014

Ivan, P.

2019

"Responding to cyberattacks: Prospects for the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox", Europe in the World Programme Discussion Paper, European Policy Centre.

Johnson, D.R. & Post, D.

1996

Kaljurand, M.

2016

"United Nations Group of Governmental Experts: The Estonian Perspective", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 111-127.

Kania, E.B.

2021

Kanuck, S.

2010

"Sovereign Discourse on Cyber Conflict Under International Law", Texas Law Review, 88 (7): 1571-1598.

Kavanagh, C.

2012

"Cyber Dialogue 2012 Briefs: Whither “Rules of the Road” for Cyberspace?", CyberDialogue 2012: What is Stewardship in Cyberspace.

Keller, K.J.

2021

"In Defense of Pure Sovereignty in Cyberspace", International Law Studies, 97 (1): 1432-1499.

Kello, L.

2021

"Cyber legalism: why it fails and what to do about it", Journal of Cybersecurity, 7 (1).

Kello, L.

2022

Striking Back: The End of Peace in Cyberspace – And How to Restore It, Yale University Press.

Kerttunen, M.

2016

"Patterns of Behavior: States In, Through, and About Cyberspace", Cyber Policy Institute.

Kilovaty, I.

2020

"Privatized Cybersecurity Law", UC Irvine Law Review, 10 (4).

Klimburg, A.

2020

Klimburg, A. & Almeida, V.A.

2019

Klimburg, A. & Tirmaa-Klaar, H.

2011

"Cybersecurity and Cyberpower: Concepts, Conditions and Capabilities for Cooperation for Action Within the EU", Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, Directorate B, Policy Department, European Parliament.

Komov, S., Korotkov, S. & Dylevski, I.

2007

"Military Aspects of Ensuring International Information Security in the Context of Elaborating Universally Acknowledged Principles of International Law", in Vignard, K. (ed.), Disarmament Forum: ICTs and International Security, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2007 (3): 35-44.

Korzak, E.

2016

"The Quest for Cyber Norms", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 72 (5): 348-350.

Kostyuk, N. & Wayne, C.

2021

Kramer, F.D.

2012

Achieving International Cyber Stability, Washington D.C.: The Atlantic Council.

Krutskikh, A. & Streltsov, A.A.

2014

"International Law and the Problem of International Information Security", International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy, and International Relations, 60 (6), 64-76.

Krutskikh, A.V.

2007

"[On Legal and Political Foundations of Global Information Security]" (in Russian), Mezhdunarodniye Protsessy, 1 (5), 28–37.

Kulikova, A.

2021

Lallie, H.S., Shepherd, L.A., Nurse, J.R.C., Erola, A., Epiphaniou, G., Maple, C. & Bellekens, X.

2021

Lambach, D.

2020

"The Territorialization of Cyberspace", International Studies Review, 22 (3): 482-506.

Lantis, J.S. & Bloomberg, D.J.

2018

Leins, K.

2022

New War Technologies and International Law: The Legal Limits to Weaponising Nanomaterials, Cambridge University Press.

Lemnitzer, J.M.

2021

Lessig, L.

1999

"The Law of the Horse: What Cyberlaw Might Teach", Harvard Law Review, 113 (501).

Lessig, L.

2006

Code, Version 2.0, Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.

Lewis, J.A.

2011

"Confidence-Building and International Agreement in Cybersecurity", in Vignard, K., McCrae, R. & Powers, J. (eds.), Disarmament Forum: Confronting Cyberconflict, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2011 (4): 51-60.

Lewis, J.A.

2010

"Multilateral Agreements to Constrain Cyberconflict", Arms Control Today, 40 (5): 14-19.

Lewis, J.A.

2014

"Liberty, Equality, Connectivity: Transatlantic Cybersecurity Norms", Washington D.C: Center for Strategic & International Studies.

Libicki, M.

2017

"The Coming of Cyber Espionage Norms", in: Rõigas, H., Jakschis, R., Lindström, L. & Minárik, T. (eds.), 2017 9th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Defending the Core, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Libicki, M.

2018

"Expectations of Cyber Deterrence", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 12 (4): 44-57.

Libicki, M.C.

2020

"Norms and Normalization", The Cyber Defense Review, 5 (1): 41-54.

Liebetrau, T.

2022

Lilly, B.

2022

Russian Information Warfare: Assault on Democracies in the Cyber Wild West, Naval Institute Press.

Lin, H.

2016

"Attribution of malicious cyber incidents: From soup to nuts", Journal of International Affairs, 70 (1): 75-137.

Lin, H.

2019

"The existential threat from cyber-enabled information warfare", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75 (4): 187-196.

Lindsay, J.R.

2020

Information Technology and Military Power, Cornell University Press.

Lotrionte, C.

2013

Lu, C.

2020

"Forging Stability in Cyberspace", Survival, 62 (2): 125-136.

Lubin, A.

2020

"The Liberty to Spy", Harvard International Law Journal, 61 (1): 185.

Lucas, G.

2020

"Cybersecurity and Cyber Warfare: The Ethical Paradox of 'Universal Diffidence'", in Christen, M., Gordijn, B. & Loi, M. (eds.). The Ethics of Cybersecurity, The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology, 21, Springer: 245-258.

Maschmeyer, L.

2021

Maschmeyer, L.

2022

Maschmeyer, L., Deibert, R.J. & Lindsay, J.R.

2020

Maurer, T.

2019

"A Dose of Realism: The Contestation and Politics of Cyber Norms", Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 1-23.

Maurer, T.

2011

"Cyber Norm Emergence at the United Nations, An Analysis of the UN‘s Activities Regarding Cyber-security", Discussion Paper 2011-11, Cambridge, Mass.: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Maurer, T.

2016

"The New Norms: Global Cyber-Security Protocols Face Challenges", IHS Jane’s Intelligence Review, March: 52-53.

Maurer, T., Levite, A., & Perkovich, G.

2017

"Toward a Global Norm Against Manipulating the Integrity of Financial Data", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 27 March 2017.

Mazanec, B.M.

2015

"Why International Order in Cyberspace is Not Inevitable", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 9 (2): 78-98.

Mazanec, B.M.

2015

The Evolution of Cyber War: International Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Mačák, K.

2017

"From Cyber Norms to Cyber Rules: Re-engaging States as Law-makers", Leiden Journal of International Law, 30 (4): 877-899.

Mačák, K.

2016

"Is the International Law of Cyber Security in Crisis?", in Pissanidis, N., Rõigas, H. & Veenendaal, M. (eds.), 2016 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Cyber Power, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 127-139.

Mačák, K.

2021

McKay, A., Neutze, J., Nicholas, P. & Sullivan, K.

2014

Melzer, N.

2011

"Cyberwarfare and International Law", UNIDIR Resources, Ideas for Peace and Security.

Meyer, P.

2020

"Norms of Responsible State Behaviour in Cyberspace", in Christen, M., Gordijn, B. & Loi, M., The Ethics of Cybersecurity, Springer.

Moore, D.

2022

Offensive Cyber Operations: Understanding Intangible Warfare. London: Hurst & Company.

Moret, E. & Pawlak, P.

2017

"The EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox: towards a cyber sanctions regime?", European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) Brief, July 2017.

Mueller, B.

2014

"The Laws of War and Cyberspace: On the Need for a Treaty Concerning Cyber Conflict", Strategic Update 14.2, London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Mueller, M., Grindal, K., Kuerbis, B. & Badiei, F.

2019

Mukerji, A.

2020

"The Need for an International Convention on Cyberspace", Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, 16: 198-209.

Murray, A.

2007

The Regulation of Cyberspace: Control in the Online Environment, New York: Routledge.

Möllers, N.

2021

Nakayama, B.

2022

Nye, J.S.

2013

"From Bombs to Bytes: Can Our Nuclear History Inform Our Cyber Future?", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69 (5): 8-14.

Nye, J.S.

2018

Normative Restraints on Cyber Conflict, Cambridge, Mass.: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Nye, J.S.

2014

"The Regime Complex for Managing Global Cyber Activities. The Centre for International Governance", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 1 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

O'Loughlin, B. & Drew, A.

2020

"Sending a message: the primacy of action as communication in cyber-security", in Dutton, W.H. (ed.), A Research Agenda for Digital Politics, Elgar Research Agendas: 146-158.

Ohlin, J.D.

2020

Election Interference: International Law and the Future of Democracy. Cambridge University Press.

Orji, U.J.

2012

Cybersecurity: Law and Regulation, Wolf Legal Publishers.

Pawlak, P.

2016

"Confidence-Building Measures in Cyberspace: Current Debates and Trends", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 129-153.

Pawlak, P.

2019

"The EU’s Role in Shaping the Cyber Regime Complex", European Foreign Affairs Review, 24 (2): 167–186.

Permanent Monitoring Panel on Information Security of the World Federation of Scientists (WFS)

2010

"Erice Declaration on Principles for Cyber Stability and Cyber Peace", International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies: 42nd Session, Erice, Italy, 19-24 August, 110-111.

Polanski, P.P.

2007

Customary Law of the Internet. In the Search for a Supranational Cyberspace Law, The Hague: TMC Asser Press.

Polanski, P.P.

2006

"Towards a Supranational Internet Law", Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, 1 (1): 1-9.

Post, D.G.

2000

"Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace", Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment Law & Practice, 2 (1): 70-79.

Radu, R. & Amon, C.

2021

Raymond, M.

2016

"Applying Old Rules to New Cases: International Law in the Cyber Domain", Paper presented to the International Studies Association, Atlanta GA, 16-19 March 2016.

Roguski, P.

2020

Romanosky, S. & Boudreaux, B.

2020

"Private-Sector Attribution of Cyber Incidents: Benefits and Risks to the U.S. Government", International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence: 1-31.

Rowe, N.C.

2018

"A Taxonomy of Norms in Cyberconflict for Government Policymakers", Journal of Information Warfare, 17 (1): 31-48.

Rusch, J.J.

2000

"Cyberspace and the “Devil’s Hatband”", Seattle University Law Review, 24 (2): 577-598.

Ryan, J.J.C.H., Ryan, D.J. & Tikk, E.

2010

"Cybersecurity Regulation: Using Analogies to Develop Frameworks for Regulation", in Tikk, E. & Talihärm, A-M. (eds.), International Cyber Security Legal & Policy Proceedings 2010, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE, 76-99.

Schjølberg, S. & Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2009

Schjølberg, S. & Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2011

Schmitt, M.N.

2018

Schmitt, M.N.

2017

"Grey Zones in the International Law of Cyberspace", The Yale Journal of International Law Online, 42 (2): 1-21.

Schmitt, M.N.

2019

Schmitt, M.N.

2020

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2014

"The Nature of International Law Cyber Norms", Tallinn Paper No. 5, Special Expanded Issue, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2017

"Sovereignty in Cyberspace: Lex Lata Vel Non?", AJIL Unbound, 111: 213-218.

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2017

"Respect for Sovereignty in Cyberspace", Texas Law Review, 95: 1639-1670.

Schmitt, M.N. (ed.)

2017

Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schmitt, M.N. (ed.)

2013

Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schmitt, M.N. | Ministerie van Defensie

2018

Shackelford, S.J.

2021

Shackelford, S.J.

2020

Governing New Frontiers in the Information Age: Toward Cyber Peace, Cambridge University Press.

Shackelford, S.J.

2022

Governing New Frontiers in the Information Age, Cambridge University Press.

Shires, J.

2021

"Windmills of the Mind: Higher-Order Forms of Disinformation in International Politics", in: Jančárková, T., Lindström, L., Visky, G. & Zotz, P. (eds.), 2021 13th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Going Viral, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Shires, J.

2021

The Politics of Cybersecurity in the Middle East, Hurst.

Singh, H.V., Abdel-Latif, A. & Tuthill, L.L.

2016

"Governance of International Trade and the Internet: Existing and Evolving Regulatory Systems", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 32 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Slupska, J.

2020

"War, Health, & Ecosystem: Generative Metaphors in Cybersecurity Governance", Philosophy & Technology, forthcoming. (Pre-print available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3534579).

Smeets, M.

2019

"There Are Too Many Red Lines in Cyberspace", Lawfare (20 March 2019).

Smeets, M.

2022

"Cyber Arms Transfer: Meaning, Limits, and Implications", Security Studies, 31 (1): 65-91.

Smeets, M.

2022

No Shortcuts: Why States Struggle to Develop a Military Cyber-Force. London: Hurst & Company.

Sofaer, A.D., Clark, D. & Diffie, W.

2010

"Cyber Security and International Agreements", Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, National Academies Press, 179-206.

Solum, L.B. & Chung, M.

2004

"The Layers Principle: Internet Architecture and the Law", Notre Dame Law Review, 79 (3): 815-948.

Steinbruner, J.

2011

"Prospects for Global Restraints on Cyberattack", Arms Control Today, 41 (10): 21-26.

Stevens, T.

2012

"A Cyberwar of Ideas? Deterrence and Norms in Cyberspace", Contemporary Security Policy, 33 (1): 148-170.

Stevens, T.

2020

"United Kingdom: Pragmatism and adaptability in the cyber realm", in Romaniuk, S.N. & Manjikian, M., The Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Streltsov, A.A.

2007

"International Information Security: Description and Legal Aspects", in Vignard, K. (ed.), Disarmament Forum: ICTs and International Security, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2007 (3): 5-14.

Taddeo, M.

2018

"Deterrence and Norms to Foster Stability in Cyberspace", Philosophy & Technology, 31: 323-329.

Taddeo, M.

2020

"Norms and Strategies for Stability in Cyberspace", in Burr, C. & Milano, S. (eds.). The 2019 Yearbook of the Digital Ethics Lab, Digital Ethics Lab Yearbook: Springer.

Taddeo, M.

2017

"Deterrence by Norms to Stop Interstate Cyber Attacks", Minds and Machines, 27(3): 387-392.

Thornton, R. & Miron, M.

2022

Tikk, E.

2011

"Ten Rules for Cyber Security", Survival, 53 (3): 119-132.

Tikk-Ringas, E.

2015

"Legal Framework of Cyber Security", in Lehto, M. & Neittaanmäki, P. (eds.), Cyber Security: Analytics, Technology and Automation, Springer International Publishing.

Tikk-Ringas, E.

2017

"International Cyber Norms Dialogue as an Exercise of Normative Power", Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 17 (3): 47-59.

Tikk-Ringas, E. (ed.)

2015

Evolution of the Cyber Domain: The Implications for National and Global Security - Strategic Dossier, IISS-Routledge, "Chapter 5: The 2000s".

Tropina, T. & Callanan, C.

2015

Self- and Co-regulation in Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and National Security, Springer.

Tsagourias, N.

2016

"Non-State Actors, Ungoverned Spaces and International Responsibility for Cyber Acts", Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 21 (3): 455-474.

Valeriano, B.

2022

"The Failure of the Offense/Defense Balance in Cyber Security", The Cyber Defense Review 7 (3): 91-101.

Vishik, C., Matsubara, M. & Plonk, A.

2016

"Key Concepts in Cyber Security: Towards a Common Policy and Technology Context for Cyber Security Norms", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 221-242.

Walker, C. & Masood, U.H.B.

2020

Walker, P.A.

2015

"Law of the Horse to Law of the Submarine: The Future State Behavior in Cyberspace", in Maybaum, M., Osula, A.-M., & Lindström, L. (eds.), 2015 7th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Architectures in Cyberspace, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE  Publications, 93-104.

Watts, S.

2016

"Cyber Law Development and the United States Law of War Manual", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 49-63.

Weiss, M.

2022

"The rise of cybersecurity warriors?", Small Wars & Insurgencies 33 (1-2): 272-293.

Willett, M.

2019

"Assessing Cyber Power", Survival, 61 (1): 85-90.

Wilner, A.S.

2020

"US cyber deterrence: Practising guiding theory", Journal of Strategic Studies, 43 (2): 245-280.

Wingfield, T.C. & Tikk, E.

2010

"Frameworks for International Cyber Security: The Cube, the Pyramid, and the Screen", in Tikk, E. & Talihärm, A-M. (eds.), International Cyber Security Legal & Policy Proceedings 2010, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE, 16-23.

Wolff, J.

2022

Cyberinsurance Policy: Rethinking Risk in an Age of Ransomware, Computer Fraud, Data Breaches, and Cyberattacks, MIT Press.

Woods, D.W. & Weinkle, J.

2020

"Insurance definitions of cyber war", The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, 45: 639-656.

Work, J.D.

2022

"Burned and Blinded: Escalation Risks of Intelligence Loss from Countercyber Operations in Crisis", International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence.

Zegart, A.B.

2022

Spies, Lies, and Algorithms: The History and Future of American Intelligence, Princeton University Press.

Ziolkowski, K.

2013

Zittrain, J.L.

2008

The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Zegart, A.B.

2022

Spies, Lies, and Algorithms: The History and Future of American Intelligence, Princeton University Press.

Egloff, F.J.

2022

Semi-State Actors in Cybersecurity, Oxford University Press.

Dunn Cavelty, M. & Wenger, A. (eds.)

2022

Cyber Security Politics: Socio-Technical Transformations and Political Fragmentation, Routledge.

Liebetrau, T.

2022

Buchanan, B. & Imbrie, A.

2022

The New Fire: War, Peace, and Democracy in the Age of AI, The MIT Press.

Goldfarb, A. & Lindsay, J.R.

2022

Smeets, M.

2022

"Cyber Arms Transfer: Meaning, Limits, and Implications", Security Studies, 31 (1): 65-91.

Egloff, F.J. & Shires, J.

2022

Smeets, M.

2022

No Shortcuts: Why States Struggle to Develop a Military Cyber-Force. London: Hurst & Company.

Moore, D.

2022

Offensive Cyber Operations: Understanding Intangible Warfare. London: Hurst & Company.

Leins, K.

2022

New War Technologies and International Law: The Legal Limits to Weaponising Nanomaterials, Cambridge University Press.

Work, J.D.

2022

"Burned and Blinded: Escalation Risks of Intelligence Loss from Countercyber Operations in Crisis", International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence.

Lilly, B.

2022

Russian Information Warfare: Assault on Democracies in the Cyber Wild West, Naval Institute Press.

Wolff, J.

2022

Cyberinsurance Policy: Rethinking Risk in an Age of Ransomware, Computer Fraud, Data Breaches, and Cyberattacks, MIT Press.

Weiss, M.

2022

"The rise of cybersecurity warriors?", Small Wars & Insurgencies 33 (1-2): 272-293.

Cunningham, F.S.

2022

Shackelford, S.J.

2022

Governing New Frontiers in the Information Age, Cambridge University Press.

Dwyer, A. & Ertan, A.

2022

"Introduction: An Offensive Future?", The Cyber Defense Review 7 (3): 9-13.

Thornton, R. & Miron, M.

2022

Valeriano, B.

2022

"The Failure of the Offense/Defense Balance in Cyber Security", The Cyber Defense Review 7 (3): 91-101.

Nakayama, B.

2022

Dellago, M., Woods, D. & Simpson, A.

2022

"Exploit Brokers and Offensive Cyber Operations", The Cyber Defense Review 7 (3): 31-47.

Eichensehr, K.

2022

"Not Illegal: The SolarWinds Incident and International Law", European Journal of International Law.

Maschmeyer, L.

2022

Kello, L.

2022

Striking Back: The End of Peace in Cyberspace – And How to Restore It, Yale University Press.

Shires, J.

2021

"Windmills of the Mind: Higher-Order Forms of Disinformation in International Politics", in: Jančárková, T., Lindström, L., Visky, G. & Zotz, P. (eds.), 2021 13th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Going Viral, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Hassib, B. & Shires, J.

2021

Radu, R. & Amon, C.

2021

Shackelford, S.J.

2021

Egloff, F.J. & Smeets, M.

2021

"Publicly attributing cyber attacks: a framework", Journal of Strategic Studies.

Lallie, H.S., Shepherd, L.A., Nurse, J.R.C., Erola, A., Epiphaniou, G., Maple, C. & Bellekens, X.

2021

Lemnitzer, J.M.

2021

Douzet, F., Limonier, K., Mihoubi, S., & René, E.

2021

Kostyuk, N. & Wayne, C.

2021

Delerue, F.

2021

"Covid-19 and the Cyber Pandemic: A Plea for International Law and the Rule of Sovereignty in Cyberspace", in: Jančárková, T., Lindström, L., Visky, G. & Zotz, P. (eds.), 2021 13th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Going Viral, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Möllers, N.

2021

Maschmeyer, L.

2021

Kello, L.

2021

"Cyber legalism: why it fails and what to do about it", Journal of Cybersecurity, 7 (1).

Egloff, F. J. & Dunn Cavelty, M.

2021

Shires, J.

2021

The Politics of Cybersecurity in the Middle East, Hurst.

Mačák, K.

2021

Kulikova, A.

2021

Kania, E.B.

2021

Flonk, D.

2021

Burton, J. & Christou, G.

2021

Bridging the gap between cyberwar and cyberpeace”, International Affairs, 97 (6): 1727-1747.

Baker-Beall, C. & Mott, G.

2021

Keller, K.J.

2021

"In Defense of Pure Sovereignty in Cyberspace", International Law Studies, 97 (1): 1432-1499.

Devanny, J., Martin, C. & Stevens, T.

2021

Arquilla, J.

2021

Bitskrieg: The New Challenge of Cyberwarfare, Wiley.

Boer, L.

2021

International Law As We Know It: Cyberwar Discourse and the Construction of Knowledge in International Legal Scholarship, Cambridge University Press.

Libicki, M.C.

2020

"Norms and Normalization", The Cyber Defense Review, 5 (1): 41-54.

Delerue, F.

2020

Cyber Operations and International Law, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 146.

Klimburg, A.

2020

Hamman, S.T., Mewhirter, J., Harknett, R.J., Vićić, J., & White, P.

2020

"Deciphering Cyber Operations", The Cyber Defense Review, 5 (1): 135-152.

Brantly, A.F.

2020

"Entanglement in Cyberspace: Minding the Deterrence Gap", Democracy and Security, 16 (3): 210-233.

Broeders, D., De Busser, E. & Pawlak, P.

2020

Three tales of attribution in cyberspace: Criminal law, international law and policy debates, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, April 2020.

Wilner, A.S.

2020

"US cyber deterrence: Practising guiding theory", Journal of Strategic Studies, 43 (2): 245-280.

Eichensehr, K.

2020

Branch, J.

2020

"What's in a Name? Metaphors and Cybersecurity", International Organization, 1-32.

Slupska, J.

2020

"War, Health, & Ecosystem: Generative Metaphors in Cybersecurity Governance", Philosophy & Technology, forthcoming. (Pre-print available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3534579).

Buchanan, B. & Cunningham, F.S.

2020

Dunn Cavelty, M. & Wenger, A.

2020

Henschke, A., Sussex, M. & O'Connor, C.

2020

Gioe, D.V., Goodman, V.S., & Stevens, T.

2020

"Intelligence in the Cyber Era: Evolution or Revolution?", Political Science Quarterly, 135 (2): 191-224.

Lucas, G.

2020

"Cybersecurity and Cyber Warfare: The Ethical Paradox of 'Universal Diffidence'", in Christen, M., Gordijn, B. & Loi, M. (eds.). The Ethics of Cybersecurity, The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology, 21, Springer: 245-258.

Cristiano, F.

2020

"Israel: Cyber Warfare and Security as National Trademarks of International Legitimacy", in Romaniuk, S.N. & Manjikian, M. (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3698972).

Kilovaty, I.

2020

"Privatized Cybersecurity Law", UC Irvine Law Review, 10 (4).

Hoffman, S., Lazanski, D. & Taylor, E.

2020

Egloff, F.J.

2020

"Public attribution of cyber intrusions", Journal of Cybersecurity, 6 (1).

Roguski, P.

2020

Woods, D.W. & Weinkle, J.

2020

"Insurance definitions of cyber war", The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, 45: 639-656.

Lambach, D.

2020

"The Territorialization of Cyberspace", International Studies Review, 22 (3): 482-506.

Lu, C.

2020

"Forging Stability in Cyberspace", Survival, 62 (2): 125-136.

Inglis, J.C.

2020

"Shining a Light on Cyber: An Interview with John C. 'Chris' Inglis", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 14 (3): 3-11.

Shackelford, S.J.

2020

Governing New Frontiers in the Information Age: Toward Cyber Peace, Cambridge University Press.

Romanosky, S. & Boudreaux, B.

2020

"Private-Sector Attribution of Cyber Incidents: Benefits and Risks to the U.S. Government", International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence: 1-31.

Cristiano, F.

2020

"Palestine: Whose Cyber Security without Cyber Sovereignty?", in Romaniuk, S.N. & Manjikian, M. (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3700850).

Ohlin, J.D.

2020

Election Interference: International Law and the Future of Democracy. Cambridge University Press.

Goldman, E.O.

2020

"From Reaction to Action: Adopting a Competitive Posture in Cyber Diplomacy", Texas National Security Review, special issue on Cyber Competition.

Taddeo, M.

2020

"Norms and Strategies for Stability in Cyberspace", in Burr, C. & Milano, S. (eds.). The 2019 Yearbook of the Digital Ethics Lab, Digital Ethics Lab Yearbook: Springer.

Meyer, P.

2020

"Norms of Responsible State Behaviour in Cyberspace", in Christen, M., Gordijn, B. & Loi, M., The Ethics of Cybersecurity, Springer.

Stevens, T.

2020

"United Kingdom: Pragmatism and adaptability in the cyber realm", in Romaniuk, S.N. & Manjikian, M., The Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Maschmeyer, L., Deibert, R.J. & Lindsay, J.R.

2020

Mukerji, A.

2020

"The Need for an International Convention on Cyberspace", Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, 16: 198-209.

O'Loughlin, B. & Drew, A.

2020

"Sending a message: the primacy of action as communication in cyber-security", in Dutton, W.H. (ed.), A Research Agenda for Digital Politics, Elgar Research Agendas: 146-158.

Walker, C. & Masood, U.H.B.

2020

Lubin, A.

2020

"The Liberty to Spy", Harvard International Law Journal, 61 (1): 185.

Backman, S.

2020

"Conceptualizing cyber crises", Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management.

Harknett, R.J. & Smeets, M

2020

"Cyber campaigns and strategic outcomes", Journal of Strategic Studies.

Schmitt, M.N.

2020

Barrinha, A. & Renard, T.

2020

"Power and diplomacy in the post-liberal cyberspace", International Affairs, 96 (3): 749-766.

Lindsay, J.R.

2020

Information Technology and Military Power, Cornell University Press.

Dwyer, A. & Silomon, J.

2019

"Dangerous Gaming: Cyber-Attacks, Air-Strikes and Twitter", E-International Relations, 23 September 2019.

Georgieva, I.

2019

Broeders, D., Boeke, S. & Georgieva, I.

2019

Foreign intelligence in the digital age. Navigating a state of 'unpeace', The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, September 2019.

Greenberg, A.

2019

Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers. Doubleday.

Willett, M.

2019

"Assessing Cyber Power", Survival, 61 (1): 85-90.

Buchan, R.

2019

"Taking Care of Business: Industrial Espionage and International Law", The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 26 (1): 143-160.

Davis, J.A. & Lewis, C.

2019

"Beyond the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts", The Cyber Defense Review: 161-168.

Biller, J.T. & Schmitt, M.N.

2019

Broeders, D., Adamson, L. & Creemers, R.

2019

A coalition of the unwilling? Chinese and Russian perspectives on cyberspace, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms Policy Brief, November 2019.

Maurer, T.

2019

"A Dose of Realism: The Contestation and Politics of Cyber Norms", Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 1-23.

Fairbank, N.A.

2019

Eldem, T.

2019

Mueller, M., Grindal, K., Kuerbis, B. & Badiei, F.

2019

CCDCOE Law Branch Researchers, Kadri Kaska (ed.)

2019

"Trends in International Law for Cyberspace", NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE), May 2019.

Adamson, L. & Homburger Z.

2019

"Let Them Roar: Small States as Cyber Norm Entrepreneurs", European Foreign Affairs Review, 24 (2): 217-234.

Finnemore, M. & Hollis, D.B.

2019

"Beyond Naming and Shaming: Accusations and International Law in Cybersecurity". Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2019-14. (Available at SSRN: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3347958).

Homburger, Z.

2019

Lin, H.

2019

"The existential threat from cyber-enabled information warfare", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75 (4): 187-196.

Bannelier-Christakis, K.

2019

"Due Diligence: a Strategic Norm of Responsible Behaviour for the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox?", Inaugural meeting of the European Cyber Diplomacy Dialogue, EU Cyber Direct, January 2019.

Smeets, M.

2019

"There Are Too Many Red Lines in Cyberspace", Lawfare (20 March 2019).

Klimburg, A. & Almeida, V.A.

2019

Healey, J.

2019

Schmitt, M.N.

2019

Borghard, E.D. & Lonergan, S.W.

2019

"Cyber Operations as Imperfect Tools of Escalation", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 13 (3): 122-145.

Pawlak, P.

2019

"The EU’s Role in Shaping the Cyber Regime Complex", European Foreign Affairs Review, 24 (2): 167–186.

Eggenschwiler, J.

2019

Ivan, P.

2019

"Responding to cyberattacks: Prospects for the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox", Europe in the World Programme Discussion Paper, European Policy Centre.

Egloff, F.J.

2019

Christou, G.

2019

"The Collective Securitisation of Cyberspace in the European Union", West European Politics, 42 (2): 278-301.

Taddeo, M.

2018

"Deterrence and Norms to Foster Stability in Cyberspace", Philosophy & Technology, 31: 323-329.

Rowe, N.C.

2018

"A Taxonomy of Norms in Cyberconflict for Government Policymakers", Journal of Information Warfare, 17 (1): 31-48.

Nye, J.S.

2018

Normative Restraints on Cyber Conflict, Cambridge, Mass.: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Schmitt, M.N.

2018

Claussen, K.

2018

"Beyond Norms: Using International Economic Tools to Deter Malicious State-Sponsored Cyber Activities", Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, 32 (2): 113-125. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3395176).

Lantis, J.S. & Bloomberg, D.J.

2018

Hurel, L.M. & Lobato, L.C.

2018

"Unpacking Cyber Norms: Private Companies as Norm Entrepreneurs", Journal of Cyber Policy, 3 (1): 61-76.

Schmitt, M.N. | Ministerie van Defensie

2018

Corn, G. & Jensen, E.T.

2018

"The Use of Force and Cyber Countermeasures", Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, 32 (2): 127-133. (Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3190253).

Boeke, S. & Broeders, D.

2018

"The Demilitarisation of Cyber Conflict", Survival, 60 (6): 73-90.

Burton, J.

2018

"Cyber Security Norms in the Euro-Atlantic Region: NATO and the EU as Norm Entrepreneurs and Norm Diffusers", in Gruszczak, A. & Frankowski, P. (eds.), Technology, Ethics and the Protocols of Modern War, London: Routledge.

Libicki, M.

2018

"Expectations of Cyber Deterrence", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 12 (4): 44-57.

Cristiano, F.

2018

"From Simulations to Simulacra of War: Game Scenarios in Cyberwar Exercises", Journal of War & Culture Studies, 11 (1): 22-37.

Christou, G.

2018

"The Challenges of Cybercrime in the European Union", European Politics and Society, 19 (3): 355-375.

Mačák, K.

2017

"From Cyber Norms to Cyber Rules: Re-engaging States as Law-makers", Leiden Journal of International Law, 30 (4): 877-899.

Davis, II, J.S., Boudreaux, B., Welburn, J.W., Aguirre, J., Ogletree, C., McGovern, G., & Chase, M.S.

2017

Stateless Attribution: Toward International Accountability in Cyberspace. Research Reports. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Bellovin, S.M., Landau, S. & Lin, H.S.

2017

Schmitt, M.N.

2017

"Grey Zones in the International Law of Cyberspace", The Yale Journal of International Law Online, 42 (2): 1-21.

Moret, E. & Pawlak, P.

2017

"The EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox: towards a cyber sanctions regime?", European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) Brief, July 2017.

Gechlik, M.

2017

"Appropriate Norms of State Behavior in Cyberspace: Governance in China and Opportunities for US Businesses", Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Series Paper No. 1706, 28 July 2017.

Libicki, M.

2017

"The Coming of Cyber Espionage Norms", in: Rõigas, H., Jakschis, R., Lindström, L. & Minárik, T. (eds.), 2017 9th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Defending the Core, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Grigsby, A.

2017

"The End of Cyber Norms", Survival, 59 (6): 109-122.

Maurer, T., Levite, A., & Perkovich, G.

2017

"Toward a Global Norm Against Manipulating the Integrity of Financial Data", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 27 March 2017.

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2017

"Sovereignty in Cyberspace: Lex Lata Vel Non?", AJIL Unbound, 111: 213-218.

Taddeo, M.

2017

"Deterrence by Norms to Stop Interstate Cyber Attacks", Minds and Machines, 27(3): 387-392.

Hampson, F.O. & Sulmeyer, M. (eds.)

2017

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2017

"Respect for Sovereignty in Cyberspace", Texas Law Review, 95: 1639-1670.

Finnemore, M.

2017

"Cybersecurity and the Concept of Norms", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 30 November 2017.

Hollis, D.

2017

"China and the US Strategic Construction of Cybernorms: The Process is the Product", Hoover Working Group on National Security, Technology, and Law, Aegis Paper Series No. 1704, 7 July 2017.

Schmitt, M.N. (ed.)

2017

Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tikk-Ringas, E.

2017

"International Cyber Norms Dialogue as an Exercise of Normative Power", Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 17 (3): 47-59.

Tsagourias, N.

2016

"Non-State Actors, Ungoverned Spaces and International Responsibility for Cyber Acts", Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 21 (3): 455-474.

Raymond, M.

2016

"Applying Old Rules to New Cases: International Law in the Cyber Domain", Paper presented to the International Studies Association, Atlanta GA, 16-19 March 2016.

Erskine, T. & Carr, M.

2016

"Beyond ‘Quasi-Norms’: The Challenges and Potential of Engaging with Norms in Cyberspace", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 87-109.

Watts, S.

2016

"Cyber Law Development and the United States Law of War Manual", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 49-63.

Korzak, E.

2016

"The Quest for Cyber Norms", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 72 (5): 348-350.

Geier, K.

2016

"Norms, Confidence and Capacity Building: Putting the UN Recommendations on Information and Communication Technologies in the Context of International Security Into OSCE-Action", European Cybersecurity Journal, 2 (1).

Chantzos, I. & Alam, S.

2016

"Technological Integrity and the Role of Industry in Emerging Cyber Norms", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 203-220.

Singh, H.V., Abdel-Latif, A. & Tuthill, L.L.

2016

"Governance of International Trade and the Internet: Existing and Evolving Regulatory Systems", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 32 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Austin, G.

2016

"International Legal Norms in Cyberspace: Evolution of China’s National Security Motivations", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 171-201.

Mačák, K.

2016

"Is the International Law of Cyber Security in Crisis?", in Pissanidis, N., Rõigas, H. & Veenendaal, M. (eds.), 2016 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Cyber Power, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 127-139.

Finnemore, M. & Hollis, D.

2016

"Constructing Norms for Global Cybersecurity", American Journal of International Law, 110 (3): 425-479.

Centre for International Governance Innovation & Royal Institute of International Affairs

2016

A Universal Internet in a Bordered World: Research on Fragmentation, Openness and Interoperability (Research Volume One), Global Commission on Internet Governance, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Lin, H.

2016

"Attribution of malicious cyber incidents: From soup to nuts", Journal of International Affairs, 70 (1): 75-137.

Kaljurand, M.

2016

"United Nations Group of Governmental Experts: The Estonian Perspective", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 111-127.

Pawlak, P.

2016

"Confidence-Building Measures in Cyberspace: Current Debates and Trends", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 129-153.

Vishik, C., Matsubara, M. & Plonk, A.

2016

"Key Concepts in Cyber Security: Towards a Common Policy and Technology Context for Cyber Security Norms", in Osula, A.-M. & Rõigas, H. (eds.), International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications, 221-242.

Charney, S., English, E., Kleiner, A., Malisevic, N., McKay, A., Neutze, J., & Nicholas, P.

2016

Broeders, D.

2016

Boyko, S.

2016

"UN Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security", International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy, and International Relations, 62 (5).

Maurer, T.

2016

"The New Norms: Global Cyber-Security Protocols Face Challenges", IHS Jane’s Intelligence Review, March: 52-53.

Kerttunen, M.

2016

"Patterns of Behavior: States In, Through, and About Cyberspace", Cyber Policy Institute.

Christou, G.

2016

Cybersecurity in the European Union: Resilience and Adaptability in Governance Policy, Palgrave Macmillan.

Hurwitz, R.

2015

A Call to Cyber Norms: Discussions at the Harvard-MIT-University of Toronto Cyber Norms Workshops, 2011 and 2012, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Farrell, H.

2015

"Promoting Norms for Cyberspace", Cyber Brief, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.

Crandall, M. & Allan, C.

2015

"Small States and Big Ideas: Estonia’s Battle for Cybersecurity Norms", Contemporary Security Policy, 36 (2): 346-368.

Walker, P.A.

2015

"Law of the Horse to Law of the Submarine: The Future State Behavior in Cyberspace", in Maybaum, M., Osula, A.-M., & Lindström, L. (eds.), 2015 7th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Architectures in Cyberspace, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE  Publications, 93-104.

Chertoff, M. & Rosenzweig, P.

2015

"A Primer on Globally Harmonizing Internet Jurisdiction and Regulations", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 10 – March, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Tropina, T. & Callanan, C.

2015

Self- and Co-regulation in Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and National Security, Springer.

Mazanec, B.M.

2015

"Why International Order in Cyberspace is Not Inevitable", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 9 (2): 78-98.

Eichensehr, K.E.

2015

"The Cyber-Law of Nations", The Georgetown Law Journal, 103 (2): 317-380.

Tikk-Ringas, E. (ed.)

2015

Evolution of the Cyber Domain: The Implications for National and Global Security - Strategic Dossier, IISS-Routledge, "Chapter 5: The 2000s".

Mazanec, B.M.

2015

The Evolution of Cyber War: International Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Tikk-Ringas, E.

2015

"Legal Framework of Cyber Security", in Lehto, M. & Neittaanmäki, P. (eds.), Cyber Security: Analytics, Technology and Automation, Springer International Publishing.

Heintschel von Heinegg, W.

2015

Ashton-Hart, N.

2015

"Solving the International Internet Policy Coordination Problem", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 12 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

International Security Advisory Board (ISAB)

2014

Schmitt, M.N. & Vihul, L.

2014

"The Nature of International Law Cyber Norms", Tallinn Paper No. 5, Special Expanded Issue, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

Forsyth, J.W. & Pope, B.E.

2014

McKay, A., Neutze, J., Nicholas, P. & Sullivan, K.

2014

Nye, J.S.

2014

"The Regime Complex for Managing Global Cyber Activities. The Centre for International Governance", Global Commission on Internet Governance, Paper Series: No. 1 – May, Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and Chatham House.

Hurwitz, R.

2014

"The Play of States: Norms and Security in Cyberspace", American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, 36 (5): 322-331.

Krutskikh, A. & Streltsov, A.A.

2014

"International Law and the Problem of International Information Security", International Affairs: A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy, and International Relations, 60 (6), 64-76.

Mueller, B.

2014

"The Laws of War and Cyberspace: On the Need for a Treaty Concerning Cyber Conflict", Strategic Update 14.2, London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

International Telecommunications Union

2014

Lewis, J.A.

2014

"Liberty, Equality, Connectivity: Transatlantic Cybersecurity Norms", Washington D.C: Center for Strategic & International Studies.

Forsyth, J.W.

2013

Nye, J.S.

2013

"From Bombs to Bytes: Can Our Nuclear History Inform Our Cyber Future?", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69 (5): 8-14.

Ziolkowski, K.

2013

Hurwitz, R.

2013

"A New Normal? The Cultivation of Global Norms as Part of a Cybersecurity Strategy", in Yannakogeorgos, P.A. & Lowther, A.B. (eds.), Conflict and Cooperation In Cyberspace, The Challenge to National Security, Taylor & Francis.

Choucri, N.

2013

"Co-Evolution of Cyberspace and International Relations: New Challenges for the Social Sciences", Prepared for World Social Science Forum (WSSF) 2013 Montreal, Canada, Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Glennon, M.J.

2013

"The Dark Future of International Cybersecurity Regulation", Journal of National Security Law & Policy, 6 (2): 563-570.

Lotrionte, C.

2013

Schmitt, M.N. (ed.)

2013

Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stevens, T.

2012

"A Cyberwar of Ideas? Deterrence and Norms in Cyberspace", Contemporary Security Policy, 33 (1): 148-170.

Butler, R.J. & Lachow, I.

2012

"Multilateral Approaches for Improving Global Security in Cyberspace", Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 5-14.

Kramer, F.D.

2012

Achieving International Cyber Stability, Washington D.C.: The Atlantic Council.

Grauman, B.

2012

Brown, G. & Poellet, K.

2012

"The Customary International Law of Cyberspace", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (3): 126-145.

Orji, U.J.

2012

Cybersecurity: Law and Regulation, Wolf Legal Publishers.

Hurwitz, R.

2012

"Depleted Trust in the Cyber Commons", Strategic Studies Quarterly, 6 (3): 20-45.

Clarke, R.A.

2012

Healey, J. & Pitts, H.

2012

"Applying International Environmental Legal Norms to Cyber Statecraft", I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society, 8 (2): 356- 387.

Kavanagh, C.

2012

"Cyber Dialogue 2012 Briefs: Whither “Rules of the Road” for Cyberspace?", CyberDialogue 2012: What is Stewardship in Cyberspace.

Melzer, N.

2011

"Cyberwarfare and International Law", UNIDIR Resources, Ideas for Peace and Security.

Baseley-Walker, B.

2011

"Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Cyberspace: Towards Norms of Behaviour", in Vignard, K., McCrae, R. & Powers, J. (eds.), Disarmament Forum: Confronting Cyberconflict, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2011 (4): 31-40.

Lewis, J.A.

2011

"Confidence-Building and International Agreement in Cybersecurity", in Vignard, K., McCrae, R. & Powers, J. (eds.), Disarmament Forum: Confronting Cyberconflict, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2011 (4): 51-60.

Schjølberg, S. & Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2011

Goldsmith, J.

2011

"Cybersecurity Treaties: A Skeptical View", in Berkowitz, P. (ed.), Future Challenges in National Security and Law, Hoover Institution Press.

Tikk, E.

2011

"Ten Rules for Cyber Security", Survival, 53 (3): 119-132.

Maurer, T.

2011

"Cyber Norm Emergence at the United Nations, An Analysis of the UN‘s Activities Regarding Cyber-security", Discussion Paper 2011-11, Cambridge, Mass.: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Steinbruner, J.

2011

"Prospects for Global Restraints on Cyberattack", Arms Control Today, 41 (10): 21-26.

Finnemore, M.

2011

"Cultivating International Cyber Norms", in Lord, K.M. & Sharp, T (eds.), America’s Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age, Washington D.C.: Center for a New American Security, 87-102.

Klimburg, A. & Tirmaa-Klaar, H.

2011

"Cybersecurity and Cyberpower: Concepts, Conditions and Capabilities for Cooperation for Action Within the EU", Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, Directorate B, Policy Department, European Parliament.

Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2010

Lewis, J.A.

2010

"Multilateral Agreements to Constrain Cyberconflict", Arms Control Today, 40 (5): 14-19.

Goldschmidt, C., Dark, M.J. & Chaudhry, H.

2010

"Responsibility for the Harm and Risk of Software Security Flaws", in Dark, M.J. (ed.), Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Hershey PA: IGI Global, 104-131.

Wingfield, T.C. & Tikk, E.

2010

"Frameworks for International Cyber Security: The Cube, the Pyramid, and the Screen", in Tikk, E. & Talihärm, A-M. (eds.), International Cyber Security Legal & Policy Proceedings 2010, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE, 16-23.

Hughes, R.

2010

"A Treaty for Cyberspace", International Affairs, 86 (2): 523-541.

Permanent Monitoring Panel on Information Security of the World Federation of Scientists (WFS)

2010

"Erice Declaration on Principles for Cyber Stability and Cyber Peace", International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies: 42nd Session, Erice, Italy, 19-24 August, 110-111.

Ryan, J.J.C.H., Ryan, D.J. & Tikk, E.

2010

"Cybersecurity Regulation: Using Analogies to Develop Frameworks for Regulation", in Tikk, E. & Talihärm, A-M. (eds.), International Cyber Security Legal & Policy Proceedings 2010, Tallinn: NATO CCD COE, 76-99.

Sofaer, A.D., Clark, D. & Diffie, W.

2010

"Cyber Security and International Agreements", Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, National Academies Press, 179-206.

Kanuck, S.

2010

"Sovereign Discourse on Cyber Conflict Under International Law", Texas Law Review, 88 (7): 1571-1598.

Hughes, R.

2009

"Towards a Global Regime for Cyber Warfare", in Czosseck, C. & Geers, K. (eds.), The Virtual Battlefield: Perspectives on Cyber Warfare, Conference proceedings - Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCD CoE) Conference on Cyber Warfare (June 2009, Tallinn, Estonia).

Schjølberg, S. & Ghernaouti-Hélie, S.

2009

Elliott, D.

2009

"Weighing the Case For a Convention to Limit Cyberwarfare", Arms Control Today, 39 (9): 21-27.

Zittrain, J.L.

2008

The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Komov, S., Korotkov, S. & Dylevski, I.

2007

"Military Aspects of Ensuring International Information Security in the Context of Elaborating Universally Acknowledged Principles of International Law", in Vignard, K. (ed.), Disarmament Forum: ICTs and International Security, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2007 (3): 35-44.

Polanski, P.P.

2007

Customary Law of the Internet. In the Search for a Supranational Cyberspace Law, The Hague: TMC Asser Press.

Krutskikh, A.V.

2007

"[On Legal and Political Foundations of Global Information Security]" (in Russian), Mezhdunarodniye Protsessy, 1 (5), 28–37.

Murray, A.

2007

The Regulation of Cyberspace: Control in the Online Environment, New York: Routledge.

Streltsov, A.A.

2007

"International Information Security: Description and Legal Aspects", in Vignard, K. (ed.), Disarmament Forum: ICTs and International Security, Geneva: UNIDIR, 2007 (3): 5-14.

Polanski, P.P.

2006

"Towards a Supranational Internet Law", Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, 1 (1): 1-9.

Lessig, L.

2006

Code, Version 2.0, Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.

Holland, H.B.

2005

"The Failure of the Rule of Law in Cyberspace?: Reorienting the Normative Debate on Borders and Territorial Sovereignty", The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law, 24 (1): 1-34.

Solum, L.B. & Chung, M.

2004

"The Layers Principle: Internet Architecture and the Law", Notre Dame Law Review, 79 (3): 815-948.

Rusch, J.J.

2000

"Cyberspace and the “Devil’s Hatband”", Seattle University Law Review, 24 (2): 577-598.

Post, D.G.

2000

"Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace", Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment Law & Practice, 2 (1): 70-79.

Barton, A.M.

2000

"Norm Origin and Development in Cyberspace: Models of Cybernorm Evolution", Washington University Law Quarterly, 78 (1): 59-111.

Lessig, L.

1999

"The Law of the Horse: What Cyberlaw Might Teach", Harvard Law Review, 113 (501).

Johnson, D.R. & Post, D.

1996

Easterbrook, F.H.

1996

"Cyberspace and the Law of the Horse", University of Chicago Legal Forum, Vol. 1996, Article 7.